TOWART the evin, amyd the summyris heyt,
Quhen in the Crab Appollo held his sete,
Duryng the joyous moneth tyme of June,
As gone neirwas the day, and suppar done,
I walkyt furth abowt the feildis tyte,
Quhilkis tho replenist stude full of delyte,
With herbis, cornis, catale and frute treis,
Plente of stoyr, birdis and byssy beis
In amerant medis fleand est and west,
Eftir laubour to tak the nychtis rest.

And as I blynkyt on the lift me by,
All byrnand reid gan walxin the evin sky :
The son enfyrit haill, as to my sycht,
Quhirlit about his ball with bemis brycht,
Declynand fast towart the north in deyd ;
And fyry Phlegon, his dym nychtis steid,
Dowkyt his heid sa deip in fludis gray
That Phebus rollis doun vnder hell away,
And Esperus in the west wyth bemis brycht
Vpspringis, as forridar of the nycht.

Amyd the hawchis, and euery lusty vaill,
The recent dew begynnis doun to scaill,
To meys the byrnyng quhar the son had schine,
Quhilk tho was to the neddir warld decline :
At euery pilis point and cornis croppis
The techrys stude, as lemand beriall droppis,
And on the hailsum herbis clene, but wedis,
Lyke cristall knoppis or small siluer bedis.
The lycht begouth to quynkill owt and faill,
The day to dyrkyn, decline, and devaill ;
The gummys rysis, doun fallis the donk rym,
Baith heyr and thair scuggis and schaddois dym.

Vpgois the bak wyth hir pelit ledderyn flycht ;
The lark discendis from the skyis hycht
Singand hyr compling sang, eftyr hyr gys,
To tak hyr rest, at matyn hour to rys.
Owt our the swyre swymmis the soppis of mist,
The nycht furthspred hyr cloke with sabill lyst,
That all the bewtie of the fructuus feyld
Was wyth the erthis vmbrage clene ourheild ;
Baith man and beste, fyrth, flude, and woddis wild,
Involuit in tha schaddois warrin sild.
Still war the fowlis fleis in the ayr,
All stoyr and catall seysit in thar lair,
And euery thing, quharso thame likis best,
Bownis to tak the hailsum nychtis rest
Eftir the days laubour and the heyt.

Closs warrin all and at thar soft quyet,
But sterage or removing, he or sche,
Ouder best, byrd, fysch, fowle, by land or se :
And schortlie, euery thing that dois repare
In firth or feyld, flude, forest, erth or ayr,
Or in the scroggis, or the buskis ronk,
Lakis, marrasis, or thir pulis donk,
Astabillit liggis still to slepe, and restis ;
Be the small birdis syttand on thar nestis,
The litill midgeis, and the vrusum fleyis,
Laboryus emmotis, and the byssy beyis ;
Als weill the wild as the taym bestiall,
And euery othir thingis gret and small,
Owtak the mery nychtgaill, Philomene,
That on the thorn sat syngand fra the splene.
Quhais myrthfull notis langing for to heyr,
Ontill a garth vndir a greyn lawrer
I walk onon, and in a sege down sat,
Now musand apon this and now on that.

I se the poill, and eik the Ursis brycht,
And hornyt Lucyne castand bot dym lycht,
Becaus the symmyr skyis schayn sa cleyr ;
Goldin Venus, the mastres of the ȝeir,
And gentill Jove, with hir participate,
Thar bewtuus bemis sched in blyth estayt :
That schortly, thar as I was lenyt doun,
For nychtis silens, and this byrdis sovn,
On sleip I slaid ; quhar sone I saw appeyr
Ane agit man, and said : quhat dois thou heyr
Vndir my tre, and willist me na gude ?
Me thocht I lurkit vp vnder my hude
To spy this auld, that was als stern of spech
As he had bene ane medycyner or lech ;
And weill persavit that hys weid was strange,
Tharto so auld, that it had nocht bene change,
Be my consait, fully that fourty ȝeir,
For it was threidbayr into placis seir.
Syde was his habyt, round, and closing meyt,
That strekit to the grund doun our his feyt ;
And on his hed of lawrer tre a croune,
Lyke to sum poet of the auld fassoune.

Me thocht I said to him with reuerens :
Fader, gif I haue done ȝou ony offens,
I sail amend, gyf it lyis in my mycht ;
Bot suythfastly, gyf I haue perfyte sycht,
Onto my dom, I saw ȝou nevir ayr :
Fayn wald I wyt quhen, on quhat wys, or quhayr,
Aganist ȝou trespassit ocht haue I.

Weill, quod the tother, wald thou mercy cry
And mak amendis, I sal remyt this falt ;
Bot, other wais, that sete sal be full salt.
Knawis thou nocht Mapheus Vegius, the poet,
That onto Virgillis lusty bukis sweit
The threttene buke ekyt Eneadane ?
I am the sammyn, and of the na thing fane,
That hes the tother twelf into thy tung
Translait of new, thai may be red and sung
Our Albyon ile, into ȝour wlgar leid ;
Bot to my buke ȝit list the tak na heid.

Mastir, I said, I heir weill quhat ȝe say,
And in this cace of perdon I ȝou pray :
Nocht that I haue ȝou ony thing offendit,
Bot rathyr that I haue my tyme mysspendit,
So lang on Virgillis volume for to stair,
And laid on syde full mony grave mater,
That, wald I now write in that trety more,
Quhat suld folk deme bot all my tyme forlore ?
Als, syndry haldis, fader, trastis me,
Ȝour buik ekyt but ony necessite,
As to the text according neuer a deill,
Mair than langis to the cart the fyft quheyll.
Thus, sen ȝe bene a cristin man, at large
Lay na sik thing, I pray ȝou, to my charge ;
It may suffice Virgill is at ane end.
I wait the story of Jherom is to ȝou kend,
Quhou he was dung and beft intill hys sleip,
For he to gentilis bukis gaif sik keip.
Full scharp repreif to sum is write, ȝe wist,
In this sentens of the haly Psalmist :
Thai ar corruppit and maid abhominabill
In thar studeyng thingis onprofitabill.
Thus sayr me dredis I sal thoill a heyt,
For the grave study I haue so long forleyt.

Ȝa, smy, quod he, wald thou eschaipe me swa ?
In fayth we sall nocht thus part or we ga !
Quhou think we he essonȝeis him to astart,
As all for consciens and devoit hart,
Fenȝeand him Jherom for to contirfeyt,
Quhar as he liggis bedowin, lo, in sweit !
I lat the wyt I am na hethin wycht ;
And gyf thou hes afore tyme gayn onrycht,
Followand sa lang Virgill, a gentile clerk,
Quhy schrynkis thou with my schort cristine werk ?
For thocht it be bot poetry we say,
My buike and Virgillis morall bene, bayth tway.
Lene me a fourtene nycht, how evir it be,
Or, be the faderis sawle me gat, quod he,
Thou sall deyr by that evir thou Virgill knew.

And, with that word, doun of the sete me drew :
Syne to me wyth his club he maid a braid,
And twenty rowtis apoun my rigging laid,
Quhil Deo, Deo, mercy did I cry ;
And be my rycht hand strekit vp in hy,
Hecht to translait his buike, in honour of God
And his Apostolis twelf, in the numbyr od.
He, glaid tharof, me be the hand vptuike ;
Syne went away, and I for feir awoik,
And blent abowt to the north est weill far,
Saw gentill Jubar schynand, the day star,
And Chiron, clepit the sing of Sagittary,
That walkis the symmirris nycht, to bed gan cary.

Ȝondyr dovn dwynis the evin sky away,
And vpspryngis the brycht dawing of day
Intill ane other place nocht far in sundir.
That to behald was plesans, and half wondir :
Furth quynching gan the starris, one be one,
That now is left bot Lucifer allone.
And forthirmor to blason this new day,
Quha mycht discrive the byrdis blyssfull bay ?
Belyve on weyng the bissy lark vpsprang,
To salus the blyth morrow with hir sang :
Sone our the feildis schinis the lycht cleyr,
Welcum to pilgrym baith and lauborer :
Tyte on his hynis gaif the greif a cry,
Awaik on fut, go till our husbandry ;
And the hird callis furth apon his page,
Do drive the catell to thar pasturage.
The hynnis wyfe clepis vp Katheryn and Gill :
Ȝa, dame, sayd thai, God wait, wyth a gude will.
The dewy grene, pulderit with daseis gay,
Schew on the sward a cullour dapill gray ;
The mysty vapouris springand vp full sweit,
Maist confortabill to glaid all mannis spreit ;
Tharto, thir byrdis singis in the schawis,
As menstralis playng, The joly day now dawis.

Than thocht I thus : I will my cunnand kepe,
I will nocht be a daw, I will nocht slepe,
I will compleit my promis schortly, thus
Maid to the poet maister Mapheus,
And mak vpwark heirof, and clos our buke,
That I may syne bot on grave materis luke.
For, thocht hys stile be nocht to Virgill like,
Full weill I wayt my text sall mony like,
Sen eftir ane my toung is and my pen,
Quhilk may suffice as for our wulgar men.

Quha evir in Latyn hes the bruit or glore,
I speke na wers than I haue done before :
Lat clerkis ken the poetis different,
And men onletteryt to my wark tak tent ;
Quhilk, as twiching this threttene buke in feir,
Begynnis thus, as forthwith followis heir.

Explicit Prologus decimi tertii Libri Eneados ;
sequitur Liber decimus tertius Maphei Vegii,
carmen traductum per eundem qui supra
interpretem.            GAVINUS DOUGLACE.


The Gaw onbrokyn mydlyt wyth the Wyne,
The Dow jonyt wyth the Glas richt in a lyne :
Quha knawis nocht the Translatouris name,
Seyk na forthar, for lo, with lytill pane
Spy weill this vers ; men clepis him swa at haym.
     Quod the Compilar, G. DOUGLACE.


LO thus, followand the flowr of poetry,
The batellis and the man translait haue I :
Quhilk ȝoir ago, in myne ondantit ȝowth,
Onfructuus idylnes fleand as I couth,
Of Lundeis Lufe the Eemeid dyd translait ;
And syne of hie Honour the Palice wrait ;
Quhen paile Aurora, wyth face lamentabill,
Hyr russet mantill bordowrit all with sabill, &c.




DDYONEA, nyclit hyrd, and wach of day,
The starnis chasit of the hevin away,
Dame Cynthea dovn rolling in the see,
And Venus lost the bewte of hir E,
Fleand eschamyt within Cylenyus cave;
Mars onbydrew, for all his grundin glave,
Nor frawart Saturn, from his mortall speyr,
Durst langar in the firmament appeir,
Bot stall abak ȝond in his regioun far
Behynd the circulat warld of Jupiter ;
Nycthemyne, affrayit of the lycht,
Went vndir covert, for gone was the nycht ;
As fresch Aurora, to mychty Tythone spous,
Ischit of hir safron bed and evir hous,
In crammysin cled and granit violat,
With sanguyne cape, the selvage purpurat,
Onschot the windois of hyr large hall,
Spred all wyth rosys, and full of balm ryall,
And eik the hevinly portis crystallyne
Vpwarpis braid, the warld to illumyn.
The twinkling stremowris of the orient
Sched purpour sprangis with gold and asure ment,
Persand the sabill barmkyn nocturnall,
Bet doun the skyis clowdy mantill wall :
Ecus the steid, with ruby hamis reid,
Abuf the seyis lyftis furth his heid,
Of cullour soyr, and sum deill brovn as berry,
For to alichtyn and glaid our emyspery,
The flambe owtbrastyng at his neys thyrlys ;
Sa fast Phaeton wyth the quhip him quhirlys,
To roll Apollo his faderis goldin chair,
That schrowdyth all the hevynnis and the ayr ;
Quhill schortly, with the blesand torch of day,
Abilȝeit in his lemand fresch array,
Furth of hys palyce ryall ischyt Phebus,
Wyth goldin crovn and vissage gloryus,
Crysp haris, brycht as chrysolite or topace,
For quhais hew mycht nane behald his face,
The fyry sparkis brastyng fra his ene,
To purge the ayr, and gylt the tendyr grene,
Defundand from hys sege etheriall
Glaid influent aspectis celicall.
Before his regale hie magnificens
Mysty vapour vpspringand, sweit as sens,
In smoky soppis of donk dewis wak,
Moich hailsum stovis ourheildand the slak ;
The aureat fanys of hys trone souerane
With glytrand glans ourspred the occiane,
The large fludis lemand all of lycht
Bot with a blenk of his supernale sycht.
For to behald, it was a gloir to se
The stabillit wyndis and the cawmyt see,
The soft sessoun, the firmament serene,
The lowne illumynat air, and fyrth amene ;
The syluer scalyt fyschis on the greit
Ourthwort cleir stremis sprynkland for the heyt,
Wyth fynnis schynand brovn as synopar,
And chyssell tails, stowrand heyr and thar ;
The new cullour alychtnyng all the landis,
Forgane thir stannyris schane the beryall strandis,
Quhill the reflex of the diurnal bemis
The bene bonkis kest ful of variant glemis,
And lusty Flora did hyr blomis spreid
Vnder the feit of Phebus sulȝart steid ;
The swardit soyll enbrovd wyth selcouth hewis
Wod and forest obumbrat with thar bewis,
Quhois blissfull branchis, porturat on the grund,
With schaddois schene schew rochis rubycund :
Towris, turattis, kyrnellis, pynnaclis hie
Of kirkis, castellis, and ilke fair cite,
Stude payntit, euery fyall, fane, and stage,
Apon the plane grund, by thar awin vmbrage.
Of Eolus north blastis havand no dreyd,
The sulȝe spred hyr braid bosum on breid,
Ȝephyrus confortabill inspiratioun
For till ressaue law in hyr barm adoun ;
The cornis croppis and the beris new brerd
Wyth glaidsum garmond revesting the erd ;
So thik the plantis sprang in euery pece,
The feyldis ferleis of thar fructuus flece ;
Byssy dame Ceres, and provd Pryapus,
Reiosyng of the planis plenteus,
Plenyst sa plesand and maist propirly,
By natur nurist wondir nobilly.
On the fertill skyrt lappis of the ground
Streking on breid ondyr the cirkill rovnd, 30
The variant vestur of the venust vaill
Schrowdis the scherald fur, and euery faill
Ourfret with fulȝeis of figuris full diuers,
The spray bysprent with spryngand sproutis dispers ;
For callour humour on the dewy nycht,
Rendryng sum place the gers pilis thar hycht
Als far as catal, the lang symmeris day,
Had in thar pastur eyt and knyp away ;
And blisfull blossummis in the blomyt ȝard
Submittis thar hedis in the ȝong sonnis salfgard ;
Ive levis rank ourspred the barmkin wall,
The blomyt hawthorn cled his pikis all ;
Furth of fresch burgionis the wyne grapis ȝing
Endlang the treilȝeis dyd on twystis hing.
The lowkyt buttonis on the gemmyt treis
Ourspredand leyvis of naturis tapestreis ;
Soft gresy verdour eftir balmy schowris
On curland stalkis smyling to thar flowris ;
Behaldand thame sa mony diuers hew,
Sum pers, sum paill, sum burnet, and sum blew,
Sum grece, sum gowlis, sum purpour, sum sangwane,
Blauchit or brovne, fawch ȝallow mony ane,
Sum hevynly cullorit in celestiall gre,
Sum wattry hewit as the haw wally see,
And sum depart in freklys red and quhyte,
Sum brycht as gold with aureat levis lyte.
The dasy dyd on breid hir crownell smaill,
And euery flour onlappit in the daill ;
In battill gyrs burgionys the banwart wyld,
The clavyr, catcluke, and the cammamyld ;
The flour delice furth spred his hevinly hew,
Flour dammes, and columby blank and blew ;
Seyr downis smaill on dent de lion sprang,
The ȝing grene blomyt straberry levis amang ;
Gymp gerraflouris thar royn levys vnschet,
Fresch prymros, and the purpour violet ;
The roys knoppis, tetand forth thar heyd,
Gan chyp, and kyth thar vermel lippis red,
Crysp scarlet levis sum scheddand, baith attanis
Kest fragrant smell amyd from goldin granis ;
Hevinly lylleis, with lokerand toppis quhyte,
Oppynnit and schew thar creistis redymyte,
The balmy vapour from thar sylkyn croppis
Distylland hailsum sugurat hunny droppis,
And syluer schakaris gan fra levis hyng,
Wyth crystal sprayngis on the verdour ȝyng ;
The plane pulderyt with semely settis sovnd,
Bedyit full of dewy peirlis rovnd,
So that ilk burgioun, syon, herb, and flour,
Wolx all enbalmyt of the fresch liquour,
And bathit hait did in dulce humouris fleit,
Quharof the beis wrocht thar hunny sweit,
By michty Phebus operatiounis,
In sappy subtell exalatiounis.
Forgane the cummyn of this prince potent,
Redolent odour vp from rutis sprent,
Hailsum of smell as ony spicery,
Tryakle, droggis, or electuary,
Seroppis, sewane, sugour, and synamome,
Precyus invnctment, salve, or fragrant pome,
Aromatik gummis, or ony fyne potioun,
Must, myr, aloes, or confectioun ;
Ane paradice it semyt to draw neyr
Thyr galȝart gardyngis and ilke greyn herbere.
Maist amyabill walxis the amerant medis :
Swannys swouchis throw owt the rysp and redis,
Our al thir lowys and the fludis gray
Seyrsand by kynd a place quhar thai suld lay :
Phebus red fowle hys corall creist can steyr,
Oft streking furth hys hekkyll, crawand cleir,
Amyd the wortis and the rutys gent
Pykland his meyt in alleis quhar he went,
Hys wifis, Toppa and Pertelok, hym by,
As byrd al tyme that hantis bygamy :
The payntit povne, pasand with plomys gym,
Kest vp his taill, a provd plesand quheil rym,
Yschrowdyt in hys fedramme brycht and schene,
Schapand the prent of Argus hundreth ene :
Amang the brounis of the olyve twestis
Seyr small fowlis wirkand crafty nestis,
Endlang the hedgeis thyk, and on rank akis,
Ilk byrd reiosyng with thar myrthfull makis.
In corneris and cleir fenystaris of glas
Full byssely Aragne wevand was,
To knit hyr nettis and hir wobbys sle,
Tharwith to caucht the myghe and littill fle :
So dusty puldyr vpstowris in euery streyt,
Quhill corby gaspyt for the fervent heyt.
Vnder the bewys beyn in lusty valis,
Within fermans and parkis cloys of palys,
The bustuus bukkis rakis furth on raw ;
Heyrdis of hertis throw the thyk wod schaw,
Baith the brokettis, and with brayd burnyst tyndis ;
The sprutlyt calvys sowkand the reid hyndis,
The ȝong fownis followand the dun dayis,
Kyddis skippand throw ronnis eftir rayis.
In lyssouris and on leys litill lammis
Full tait and trig socht bletand to thar dammis.
Tydy ky lowys, veilys by thame rynnis ;
All snog and slekyt worth thir bestis skynnis.
On salt stremis wolx Doryda and Thetis,
By rynnand strandis Nymphis and Naedes,
Syk as we clepe wenchis and damysellis,
In gresy gravis wandrand by spring wellis,
Of blomyt branchis and flowris quhite and rede
Plettand thar lusty chaiplettis for thar hede ;
Sum sing sangis, dansis ledys, and rovndis,
Wyth vocis schill, quhill all the daill resovndis ;
Quharso thai walk into thar caraling,
For amorus lays doith all the rochis ryng.
Ane sang, The schip sails our the salt fame,
Will bring thir merchandis and my lemman hame
Sum other singis, I wil be blyth and lycht,
Myne hart is lent apon sa gudly wycht
And thochtfull luffaris rowmys to and fro,
To leis thar pane, and plene thar joly wo ;
Eftyr thar gys, now syngand, now in sorow,
With hartis pensyve, the lang symmeris morow :
Sum ballettis lyst endyte of his lady,
Sum levis in hoip, and sum aluterly
Disparyt is, and sa quyte owt of grace,
His purgatory he fyndis in euery place.
To pleis his luife sum thocht to flat and fene,
Sum to hant bawdry and onlesum mene ;
Sum rownys to hys fallow, thame betwene,
Hys mery stouth and pastans lait ȝistrene.
Smyland sayis ane, I couth in previte
Schaw the a bowrd. Ha, quhat be that ? quod he :
Quhat thing ? That moste be secret sayd the tother.
Gude Lord ! mysbeleif ȝe ȝour verray brother ?
Na, neuyr a deill, bot harkis quhat I wald ;
Thou mon be prevy : lo, my hand vphald.
Than sal thou walk at evin : quod he, quhiddyr ?
In sik a place heyr west, we bayth togiddyr,
Quhar scho so freschly sang this hyndir nycht ;
Do chois the ane, and I sal quynch the lycht.
I sal be thar I hope, quod he, and lewch ;
Ȝa, now I knaw the mater weill enewch.
Thus oft dywulgat is this schamefull play,
Na thyng according to our hailsum May,
Bot rathyr contagius and infective,
And repugnant that sessoun nutrytive,
Quhen new curage kytlis all gentill hartis,
Seand throu kynd ilk thyng springis and revertis.
Dame naturis menstralis, on that other part,
Thayr blyssfull bay entonyng euery art,
To beyt thar amouris of thar nychtis baill,
The merll, the mavys, and the nychtingale,
With mery notis myrthfully furth brest,
Enforsing thame quha mycht do clynk it best.
The cowschet crowdis and pirkis on the rys,
The styrlyng changis diuers stevynnys nys,
The sparrow chyrmis in the wallis clyft,
Goldspynk and lyntquhyte fordynnand the lyft ;
The gukgo galis, and so quytteris the quaill,
Quhill ryveris rerdyt, schawis, and euery vaill,
And tender twystis trymlyt on the treis,
For byrdis sang and bemyng of the beis.
In wrablis dulce of hevynly armonyis
The larkis, lowd releschand in the skyis,
Lovys thar lege with tonys curyus,
Baith to dame Natur, and the fresch Venus,
Rendryng hie lawdis in thar obseruance,
Quhais suguryt throtis mayd glayd hartis dans,
And al small fowlys singis on the spray :
Welcum the lord of lycht, and lamp of day,
Welcum fostyr of tendir herbys grene,
Welcum quyknar of florist flowris schene,
Welcum support of euery rute and vane,
Welcum confort of alkynd fruyt and grane,
Welcum the byrdis beyld apon the breyr,
Welcum maister and rewlar of the ȝeyr,
Welcum weilfar of husbandis at the plewis,
Welcum reparar of woddis, treis, and bewis,
Welcum depayntar of the blomyt medis,
Welcum the lyfe of euery thing that spredis,
Welcum stourour of alkynd bestiall,
Welcum be thi brycht bemys, glading all,
Welcum celestiall myrrour and aspy,
Attechyng all that hantis sluggardy !
And with this word, in chalmer quhair I lay,
The nynt morow of fresche temperat May,
On fut I sprent into my bayr sark,
Wilfull for till compleyt my langsum wark
Twichand the lattyr buke of Dan Virgill,
Quhilk me had tareyt al to lang a quhile ;
And to behald the cummyng of this kyng,
That was sa welcum tyll all warldly thyng,
With sic tryumphe and pompos curage glayd
Than of his souerane chymmis, as is sayd,
Newly arissyn in hys estayt ryall,
That, by hys hew, but orleger or dyall,
I knew it was past four houris of day,
And thocht I wald na langar ly in May
Les Phebus suld me losanger attaynt :
For Progne had, or than, sung hyr complaynt,
And eik hir dreidful systir Philomene
Hir lais endit, and in woddis grene
Hyd hir selvin, eschamyt of hyr chance ;
And Esacus completis his pennance
In riveris, fludis, and on euery laik :
And Peristera byddis luffaris awaik ;
Do serve my lady Venus heyr wyth me,
Lern thus to mak ȝour obseruance, quod sche,
Into myne hartis ladeis sweit presens
Behaldis how I beinge, and do reuerens.
Hir nek scho wrinklis, trasing mony fold,
With plomis glitterand, asur apon gold,
Rendring a cullour betwix grene and blew,
In purpour glans of hevinly variant hew ;
I meyn our awin native bird, gentill dow,
Syngand in hyr kynd, I come hidder to wow ;
So pryklyng hyr grene curage for to crowd
In amorus voce and wowar soundis lowd,
That, for the dynning of hir wanton cry,
I irkyt of my bed, and mycht nocht ly,
Bot gan me blys, syne in my wedis dres,
And, for it was ayr morow, or tyme of mes,
I hynt a scriptour and my pen furth tuike,
Syne thus begouth of Virgill the twelt buike.

Explicit scitus prologus ;
Quhairof the authour sais thus :

The lusty crafty preambill, perll of May
I the entitill, crownit quhill domisday ;
And al wyth gold, in syng of stayt ryall,
Most beyn illumnit thi letteris capital.

Heyr endis the Prolong of the xii. Buik of Eneados,
and eftyr cummys syne the Bulk of the samyng.